Phase II: Environmental Investigation

Phase II - Environmental Investigation

If RECs are identified in a Phase I ESA, PINNACLE will evaluate for potential contamination by performing a Phase II Environmental Site Investigation (Phase II). During the Phase II, PINNACLE investigates for specific contaminants based on results of the Phase I, the extent of surface or subsurface migration, and any resulting environmental or health risks by performing one or more of the following:

Field Sampling

Field Sampling of soil, groundwater, air, and/or building materials located on the property to determine the presence and extent of contaminants of concern.


Field Screening

Field Screening to determine which samples should be sent for laboratory analyses, and to ensure the safety of field personnel collecting the samples. Field screening enables PINNACLE to submit the proper number of samples for analyses, increasing the cost-effectiveness of the investigation. PINNACLE personnel are fully trained in the calibration and use of field screening instrumentation including:

  1. Portable gas chromatographs
  2. Organic vapor analyzers
  3. Photoionization detectors
  4. Combustible vapor monitors


Geophysical Surveys

Geophysical Surveys to help define subsurface contaminant plumes, locate subsurface public and/or private utilities, locate underground storage tanks, and identify suitable locations for soil borings and groundwater monitoring wells, if necessary. A geophysical survey may include:

  1. An electromagnetic (EM) survey to locate subsurface features
  2. A resistivity survey to measure lithologic trends and the lateral and vertical extent of contamination
  3. A soil-gas survey to delineate the extent of product, plume, and soil and groundwater contamination 


Hydrogeological Studies

Hydrogeological Studies to determine the nature and extent of contamination and identify the most appropriate and cost-effective remedial action. Depending on the site, investigations may include:

  1. Monitoring well installation and sampling
  2. Aquifer testing
  3. Groundwater analyses


PINNACLE uses independent laboratories for analyses of samples. PINNACLE only uses laboratories that are National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Conference (NELAC) certified.

PINNACLE prepares a site-specific Health and Safety Plan (HASP) that complies with regulatory requirements for all personnel involved in drilling, sampling, or monitoring activities at a site.